The Lochend Wind Farm Extension Project 

The Proposal

The Lochend Wind Farm Extension Project seeks to expand upon the four wind turbines which were commissioned by Constantine in 2017. The site exists to the east of Lochend, 8 kilometres southwest of John 0′ Groats and 16 kilometres east of Thurso, in Caithness.

The proposal is to extend the existing wind farm site with a further 5 wind energy turbines each of up to 149.9 m tip height and 4.2 MW capacity, as well as 10 MW of battery storage.

The existing site consists of 4 wind turbines each of 99.5 m tip height 2.3 Megawatts (MW) capacity. In its first year of production, these four wind turbines produced 22,102 MWh of electricity. This is power generated equivalent to the annual demand of 6,177 homes – or a reduction in carbon emissions by 9,725 tonnes compared to non-renewable electricity generators.*

The proposed turbines are larger and generate significantly more energy, likely equivalent to the annual demand of 15,530 homes, a reduction in carbon emissions of 25,610 tonnes each year. See the Benefits section below for more detail.

We will hold two rounds of online public Q&A sessions to consult the local community on the extension proposal. Both will be held at the Northern Sands Hotel in Dunnet, within the same parish and minutes from Lochend. The first event is between 3-7pm on Wednesday 6th September 2023, and the second is between 3-7pm on Thursday 21st September 2023. In the meantime or as an alternative to visiting, please use the contact details at the bottom of this page to get in touch with any questions or feedback on the project.

The proposal can be seen in the adjacent plan. The layout takes into account:


  • Avoidance of areas of specific ecological concern such as identified bird flight paths
  • Avoidance of peat
  • Avoidance of watercourses
  • Avoidance of tree felling
  • Keeping to a compact footprint
  • Use of existing infrastructure
  • Stability of the local grid through battery storage
  • Reducing visibility as seen from key local viewpoints
  • The Spatial Framework for Onshore Wind Energy – areas with potential for wind farm development

Ecology and Hydrology

In addition to the surveys that took place for the existing development, an Extended Phase 1 ecological survey was completed between 2020 and 2021.

The survey found:

The area is dominated by marshy grassland habitats which are subject to grazing from sheep and cattle. The floristic diversity varies significantly but the majority of areas are species-poor and dominated by soft rush.

Other significant habitats included areas of dry modified bog in the north, patches of dense scrub, small areas of wet dwarf shrub heath and flushed grassland along the burn. All of these habitats are significantly altered by current and historic land management practices.

Many of the habitats present, although botanically impoverished, do offer some ecological value with a number of the habitats identified as being potentially of moderate or high dependency on groundwater.

A protected species survey on otter and water voles was additionally completed in 2021. It concluded that otters are likely to infrequently use the surveyed area, and no place of shelter is present. Evidence of a small population of water voles has been found along the ditch network to the east of site. 

The proposed extension is set apart from, and does not require development over, any watercourse.

A Peat Depth Survey was completed in October 2021.

A total of 295 probes were undertaken across the site.

Of the 295 locations probed a total of 244 probes (82.7%) recorded depths of 0.5m or less and 20 probes recorded peat depths between >0.5m and 1.0m. A total of 31 probes located deep peat (>1.0m).  

Deep peat was found in the far north and far southeast of site as seen in the adjacent plan.

The proposed extension does not require development over any area of deep peat.



Extensive ornithological surveys were undertaken for the existing development. Further ornithological surveys guided by The Highland Council and NatureScot took place between 2020 and 2021. These encompass a survey boundary extending up to 2 km from site.

These surveys were undertaken during both breeding and non-breeding periods.

No evidence of roosting was found within site, and within the 2km survey buffer only evidence of hen harrier roosting was found, to the north. The majority of recorded bird flight paths are north and west of site, outside of the site boundary. No carcasses or other signs of birds being struck by turbine blades were found during searches. 

Bat surveys also took place throughout 2021, and concluded that bat activity levels were broadly in line with similar sites in Scotland, being ‘Low to Moderate’ and that the habitat risk of the area surveyed was ‘Low’.


Close to the site there are a number of locations designated for ornithological interest, including several which support important numbers of geese, waders and raptors. However, surveys found that none of these locations will be significantly impacted by the development. 

Due to the anticipated need to disturb areas of habitat, it is proposed that vegetation clearance is undertaken outwith the breeding season which runs from March to August of any given year.

Examining the Site - Visuals and Heritage

Viewpoint locations for the below montages; proposed turbines numbered 1 (most northerly) to 5 (most southerly)

Extensive cultural heritage surveys were undertaken for the existing development, with a 10km buffer zone being examined.

While 16 locations of cultural heritage were identified within site, each is of local or lesser importance and would receive no significant impact.

A further variety of scheduled monuments and listed buildings fall within the examined buffer zone. Of these, key assets identified through consultation were the Castle of Mey, Thomsonfield Broch, and Earl’s Cairn. No significant impacts were predicted for any heritage asset with the exception of a moderate effect predicted for the site Earl’s Cairn.

Further heritage survey work will be undertaken in consultation with the appropriate consultees.

Zones of Theoretical Visibility and Major Heritage buildings (Existing Site)

Spatial Framework for Onshore Wind Energy (The Highland Council)

The proposal is in direct conformance with the Spatial Framework for Onshore Wind Energy, established by The Highland Council in August 2016, which can be found within the Onshore Wind Energy Supplementary Guidance of September 2016, and which identifies areas in the Highlands where wind farms are more capable of acceptance.

All of the proposed turbines are in Group 3, the area coloured blue in the adjacent map, an area clearly identified by the Council as an area with potential for wind farm development.



The wind farm extension will bring substantial economic benefits to the local area:

Moving Forward

01 September 2023

John O’Groats Journal

The first public advertisement of the proposal of application notice is published

01 September 2023

Mail to the Public

A leaflet is mailed to all dwellings within 3km of site

06 September 2023

Public Event

The first public consultation takes place 3-7pm at Northern Sands Hotel

08 September 2023

John O’Groats Journal

The second public advertisement of the proposal of application notice is published

21 September 2023

Public Event

The second public consultation takes place 3-7pm at Northern Sands Hotel


Planning Application 

The submission of the planning application is due to take place.

* See for further information and the methodology for these calculations

The Team

Bruce Hutt


Bruce has spent over 25 years in the renewable industry, and is responsible for new development as well as ensuring the operational efficacy of the Constantine wind fleet. 

Simon Tribe

Simon has managed the design and assessment of over 50 wind farms both onshore and offshore.

Daniel Hirons 

Daniel has been responsible for many aspects of the operations of Constantine’s wind fleet, and plays a key part in acquistions and site development, the fleet now consisting of nearly 200 turbines, for almost 5 years.

Enquiries and Communication

We seek to involve the community in our planning process. By working together and sharing information, we hope to promote dialogue and ensure clarity. 
Feedback is appreciated and may inform and improve the design decisions of the extension. 


Phone: 01483412065
Letter Address:
Daniel Hirons
Constantine Wind Energy
First Floor River Court
Mill Lane

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